Exploring the N$Λ$-N$Σ$ coupled system with high precision correlation techniques at the LHC

The interaction of $\Lambda$ and $\Sigma$ hyperons (Y) with nucleons (N) is strongly influenced by the coupled-channel dynamics. Due to the small mass difference of the $\rm N \Lambda$ and $\rm N \Sigma$ systems, the sizeable coupling strength of the $\rm N \Sigma\leftrightarrow N \Lambda$ processes constitutes a crucial element in the determination of the N$\Lambda$ interaction. In this letter we present the most precise measurements on the interaction of p$\Lambda$ pairs, from zero relative momentum up to the opening of the $\rm N \Sigma$ channel. The correlation function in the relative momentum space for $\mathrm{p}\Lambda\oplus\overline{\mathrm{p}}\overline{\Lambda}$ pairs measured in high-multiplicity triggered pp collisions at $\sqrt{s}~=~13$ TeV at the LHC is reported. The opening of the inelastic N$\Sigma$ channels is visible in the extracted correlation function as a cusp-like structure occurring at relative momentum $k^{*}$ = 289 MeV/$c$. This represents the first direct experimental observation of the $\rm N \Sigma\rightarrow N \Lambda$ coupled channel in the p$\Lambda$ system. The correlation function is compared with recent chiral effective field theory calculations, based on different strengths of the $\rm N \Sigma\leftrightarrow N \Lambda$ transition potential. A weaker coupling, as possibly supported by the present measurement, would require a more repulsive three-body NN$\Lambda$ interaction for a proper description of the $\Lambda$ in-medium properties, which has implications on the nuclear equation of state and for the presence of hyperons inside neutron stars.


Phys. Lett. B 833 (2022) 137272
HEP Data
e-Print: arXiv:2104.04427 | PDF | inSPIRE
Figure group

Figure 1

Upper panels: \pL correlation function (circles) with statistical (vertical bars) and systematic (grey boxes) uncertainties. Middle panels: zoom on the cusp-like signal at $\ks = 289$ \MeVc. Lower panels: The deviation between data and predictions, expressed in terms of $n_\sigma$. The fit is performed using NLO13 (red) \Chieft potentials with cut-off $\Lambda=$600 \MeV  and using a cubic baseline (dark grey). The residual $\pXim\oplus\pXio$ (pink) and p$\Sigma^0$ (royal blue) correlations are modelled using, respectively, a lattice potential from the HAL QCD collaboration  and a $\chi$EFT potential . Both contributions are plotted relative to the baseline, while in panel b) the strong interaction of p$\Sigma^0$ is neglected. The reduced $\chi^2$, for $\ks<300 $\MeVc, amounts to 2.2 in case a) and to 1.9 in case b).

Figure 2

Similar representation as in Fig. \ref{fig:Results13}, where the \pL interaction is modelled using NLO19 (cyan) \Chieft potentials with cut-off $\Lambda=$600 \MeV . This leads to an improved description of the low momentum region. The reduced $\chi^2$, for $\ks<300 $\MeVc, equals 2.0 in case the \pSo is modelled by \Chieft (panel a) and 1.8 in case the \pSo final state interaction is ignored (panel b).